Skip to main content

This is for internal use by the PaaS team. Public-facing documentation is located at

ADR011: Security group structure


In we described a pattern for defining security groups between services and the VMs that connect to them. This involved creating a client security group for each service that the service allowed connections from. This client security group was then applied to the VMs that needed to be able to connect.

This has the problem that in some cases we would need to add several client security groups to a given VM, and we are at risk of running into the AWS limits (by default it’s a max of 5 groups per interface).


We will use an alternative approach where a security group is defined for each component (or component group) in the system. Services then define rules allowing connections from the components that need access. There are some instances where a component will be both a client of other services and a provider of a service. We will use the same security group for both of these roles.

This approach has a number of advantages:

  • The number of security groups applied to a VM is driven by the number of components on that VM, not the number of things that they need to connect to. The number of components is likely to be small, and we’re better able to control this that we can control the number of things a component talks to.
  • It’s easier to see what components connect to a given service by looking at the rules for that service’s security group.
  • When moving a component between VMs it’s much clearer which security groups need to move with it.




  • This will enable us to avoid hitting the AWS limits for the number of security groups applied to a given interface.
  • It will make it clearer which components are allowed to connect to a given service.
  • There will be some work to update our existing groups to use this pattern.

There are some potential issues:

  • There’s the possibility for cycles in the Terraform dependency graph when we have 2 components that both initiate connections to each other. This can be avoided by using the aws_security_group_rule Terraform resource instead of defining the rules inline in the aws_security_group.

  • When looking at a given VM, it’s harder to see what services it connects to. This is not seen as a major problem because it should be possible to create tooling to visualise this without much effort.